Located 540 miles north of Lima, Cajamarca is best known as the site of the first meeting between Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro and Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor. This colonial city, once an Inca settlement, boasts fine churches and a countryside full of remains of pre-Inca and Inca monuments, including the Cumbemayo Canal, carved in living rock, and the Ventanillas de Otuzco, an ancient cemetery. Cajamarca is also the departing point for Chachapoyas and the mysterious ruins of Kuelap. The Chachapoyas can be visited in a four-night expedition. Recommended stay is two nights.